MTI Offers Command-and-Control Insights for HITL and HOTL/HOOTL Models

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Park City, UT – Monterey Technologies, Inc. (MTI) will present an analysis of Human-on-the-Loop (HOTL) vs Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) considerations and best practices for command-and-control architecture at the Joint Air Power Competence Centre’s 2021 Joint Air & Space Power Conference which is scheduled for September 7-9 in Centre Essen, Germany.

An abstract of the conference presentation is available for download at Joint Air Power Competence Centre’s website,

MTI is a Human Factors Engineering (HFE), Human-Systems Integration (HSI), Mission Planning, and Modeling & Simulation (M&S) engineering firm based in Park City, Utah. The firm’s work spans Department of Defense, government agencies, and public/private institutions.

Authored and presented by Michael B. Cowen, PhD, Captain Rick Williams USN (ret.) and Brigadier General (ret.) Doug Cherry, MTI’s presentation will examine the question “Is Human-On-the-Loop the Best C2 Architecture to Deliver Rapid Relevant Responses?” Dr. Cowen serves as a Senior Human Systems Integration Professional of MTI and Director of Human Factors Engineering. Capt. Mr. Williams is MTI’s Chief Technologist and Mr. Cherry serves as MTI’s Chief Executive Officer.

MTI’s presentation will explore the command-and-control considerations associated with operations and decision-making progressing from HITL to HOTL/HOOTL architectures, including:

  • How increasing levels of automation and AI bring the promise of enhanced weapons effectiveness, but also risks that may lead to lethal consequences.
  • A methodology that offers offer control solutions to mitigate the risk associated with HOOTL weapon system options that may trigger machine errors.
  • How a command and control architecture approach should consider design strategies that model rapid relevant response automation to make the human operator more aware.
  • The progression of in-depth human factors analysis of how weapon system autonomy progresses from HITL to HOTL to HOOTL and how automation supervisors regain control to reassert decision-making.

Additional information, including the conference abstract, is available at


The JAPCC, as a team of multinational experts, is to provide key decision-makers effective solutions on Air and Space Power challenges, in order to safeguard NATO and the Nations’ interests. Visit to learn more. In 2021 the Joint Air & Space Power Conference will focus on “Delivering NATO Air & Space Power at the Speed of Relevance” and will be held from September 7-9, 2021 at the Congress Centre in Essen, Germany.


Based in Park City, Utah, with staff supporting clients throughout the U.S., MTI is a human-centered analysis, design, and ergonomics firm that believes technology should be developed to serve the needs of the human user. MTI’s goal is to develop systems that allow human users to be decision makers rather than human data integrators. Current clients include the military, defense contractors, and the commercial sector. Visit to learn more.

Dr Michael B. Cowen serves as a Senior Human Systems Integration Professional of Monterey Technologies, Inc. and Director of Human Factors Engineering. He has a PhD in Cognitive Psychology, a MS in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and a BA in Experimental Psychology. Dr Cowen is a former Naval Information Warfare Center researcher working over 37 years at the Point Loma campus as a Human Factors Psychologist.

Captain (ret.) Rick Williams (US Navy) is MTI’s Chief Technologist. His 45 years’ experience in public and private sectors includes 21 years of continuous sea duty as a Surface Warfare Officer, Submarine Warfare Officer, two afloat commands, and US Third Fleet N6/J6/J9. He is a Project Management Professional, New Product Development Professional, and Defense Acquisition Professional.

Brigadier General (ret.) Doug Cherry (US Army) is MTI’s Chief Executive Officer. He has 37 years’ experience in the Army before joining MTI. He has commanded from the Company to the Division level. He served in the operational Army, including overseas, as well as the Institutional Army, including Pentagon assignments. In the Institutional Army he served as a force developer with experiences ranging from new material requirements to manpower and organizational design.


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